Archive for the ‘Spain’ Category

Brazil's goalie Cassio stops a shot from Spain's Mata during their FIFA Under-20 World Cup soccer match in Burnaby

At age nine, Juan Mata was enrolled in the Real Oviedo youth academy by his father, also a footballer. Sixteen years later, Manchester United paid Chelsea FC a £37.1 million transfer fee for the Spanish winger. What happened in those intervening years? Was Mata born gifted, the inheritor of his father’s footballing genes? Was Mata’s path to Manchester United simply a matter of destiny? Or was he made? Was Mata’s brilliance the work of his youth coaches at Oviedo and Real Madrid or the guidance of his papa in the backyard as an adolescent?

Fellow Oviedo graduate and Swansea forward Michu once said confidently, “Oviedo taught Santi [Cazorla] and Mata to play.” And this reflects much of what we believe about youth development in football. Great players are born as raw talents, who are later moulded into shape by experts. So if you just get the “right” coaches with the “right” playing philosophy to teach talented players while they’re still young, you will crank out stars as if running an assembly line.

But what if we’re looking at player development completely backwards? What if the key to producing elite footballers is something much simpler, mich more subtle, something that has less to do with coaching philosophies and more to do with creating as many opportunities for talent to emerge on its own?

I mentioned it yesterday because it has oddly come up in three different things I’ve been reading lately, but I do think the concept of cumulative advantage applies well to the question of how elite players become elite players. has a good definition of the concept here:

The Principle of Cumulative Advantage states that once a social agent gains a small advantage over other agents, that advantage will compound over time into an increasingly larger advantage. The effect is well known and is embodied in “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer”. The principle is also known as the Matthew effect. The term was coined by sociologist Robert Merton in a 1968 paper which described how the more eminent scientists in a group tend get the most credit for the group’s work, regardless of who did the work.

This is concept is often used negatively, a reason to question the unequal distribution of wealth. But I think in the context of player development, it can be a guiding principle. Michael Mauboussin in his book The Success Equation explains a little about how cumulative advantage works in practice:

A number of mechanisms are responsible for this phenomenon. A simple one is known as preferential attachment. Let’s say you launch a new website and want to make it as popular as possible. A logical step would be to link your site to sites that already have lots of connections to their sites, including Google or Wikipedia, rather than sites that only have a few connections. In order to get a head, you have a preference for attaching to sites that are already well known and frequently visited. This behaviour causes positive feedback: the more connections you already have, the more connections you already have, the more new connections you get. Through the process of preferential attachment, some sites gain more links and others fade away into obscurity as new sites join the network. Initial differences, even modest ones, are amplified over time.

To see what this means in a football context, let’s revisit Mata’s career path. Real Oviedo’s youth academy currently consists of eleven youth division comprising several different age groups. It also holds a summer camp which emphasizes good conduct and discipline, team-work, tolerance, friendship and self-esteem, all of which reflect Spain’s general approach to youth coaching, articulated by Spanish technical director Ginés Meléndez:

“We want the players to be very level-headed, psychologically and emotionally stable. Euphoria or sadness [after a match] can lead to a drop in performance.

“Group cohesion is very important. We work on values which are fundamental in life but also in the development of a player. They will be better players if they are good people. We have two fundamental goals: training and educating young players.”

While this is a positive philosophy in its own right, it has a very important effect: by valuing the psychological well-being of the academy kids, it encourages more of the them to stay, widening the talent pool. And it was here that between 13 and 15 years of age Juan Mata scored over 100 goals, which caught the attention of Real Madrid. This moment, what sociologists might refer to as a phase transition, was only the first of several steps up the ladder.

Even then Mata’s future was not assured. He still had to prove himself under the watchful, expert eye of coaches in La Fabrica with the Cadete A U16 side. These playing opportunities further revealed Mata to be a genuine talent, which continued with his graduation to the Castilla, where he scored ten goals in one season (second to Alvaro Negredo with 18). That allowed him to move on to Valencia, another crucial opportunity. The general premium placed on Spanish players (along with their relative affordability in some cases) meant Chelsea had little to lose in paying £23.5 million for the player.

At every step before his crucial move to Valencia, the canteras provided a wide, trusted network for teams to spot and further develop talented footballers. The B reserve teams, which play in the Spanish second division, along with easily searchable youth team accomplishments at respected academies, helps eliminate the sense of risk that often prevents top flight teams from taking risks on green players. And throughout it all, an emphasis on self-esteem and friendship at the youth level ensures that potential talents learn to love the game, instead of letting it ruin their fragile sense of self.

In nations around the world, there are raw talents like Mata that never get these opportunities. Scouts either don’t trust the league, or they don’t trust the level of competition in reserve sides, or the kids drop out because they can’t deal with the pressure that comes with potential, or they simply are never exposed to the right people at the right time. A lot of this has far more to do with luck than talent. The trick to player development could simply be creating as many opportunities for lucky breaks as possible. That means opening the door to as many potential talents as possible, and giving them as many opportunities to flourish in a trusted network as possible.

Brazil v Spain: Final - FIFA Confederations Cup Brazil 2013

Prior to Sunday night’s Confederations Cup final against World and European champions Spain at the Maracanã, Brazil coach Luiz Felipe Scolari anticipated that victory for his team “would regain a lot of credibility and respect from our fans.”

It’s worth remembering, more so than ever in the afterglow of their astonishing 3­-0 win, what state the Seleção were in as they approached the competition a month ago. Confidence wasn’t high. People around the world were sceptical about the team and its individual components.

The received wisdom was that this Brazil side wasn’t up to the high standards set by its predecessors. They had slipped to 22nd in the FIFA rankings, an imperfect and often derided metric, but an indicator nonetheless of how a country rates.

After their elimination in the quarter­finals of the 2010 World Cup by the Netherlands, Dunga was replaced as head coach with Mano Menezes. It was supposedly a move away from a counter-­attacking, un-­Brazilian style of play, in which the physical appeared to take the priority over the technical, to one that was closer to their traditions of flair, seizing the initiative and entertaining the crowd.

There was a transition from one generation to another too. The old guard was more or less done away with and a new breed brought through in order to prepare them for the 2014 World Cup. So Brazil went from one extreme to the other. Many of the players weren’t ready. For the most part, they were based at home and so lacked international experience. It would take time to make the adjustment.

In the meantime, Brazil looked like a soft touch. They lost some of their aura. Paraguay knocked them out in the quarter­finals of the 2011 Copa America on penalties. Mexico beat them in the final of 2012 Olympic football tournament.

If Menezes had been sacked there and then few would have been surprised. Ironically, his dismissal came a few months later just as Brazil had started to show signs of real progress under his management. Were they shooting themselves in the foot?
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A game that featured numerous clear cut chances for both sides ended with Spain winning 7-6 on penalties. Leonardo Bonucci, Italy’s seventh shooter skied his shot over the bar, giving Manchester City new boy Jesus Navas the chance to win it for Spain. He came through, as neither goalkeeper was able to actually stop a shot. Andrea Pirlo scored to make it 5-4 Italy. The great man was not moved by the occurrence.


Everybody forgets things. Jason Bourne forgot who he was in the Bourne films, but, like troopers, the cast and crew made it work. British Prime Minister David Cameron once left one of his kids at a pub he’d been at for the afternoon. Oops! I myself went through a similar experience, frantically retracing my steps back to the pub in question, half-naked, shouting at passers-by, before realizing that in fact I don’t have any kids and that I rarely go to pubs—an anti-climax to say the least. Spain, equally embarrassingly, appear to have forgotten to qualify for the next World Cup. Their faces will be so red!

Now, okay, Spain’s forgetfulness hasn’t been punished just yet; they play France in a match they really should think about winning if they’re going to avoid a tricky play-off to reach Brazil 2014. But that’s not the point: either way, for the current World and European Champions, even the idea that they might not qualify automatically for the next World Cup marks a break from an era of difficult-to-believe dominance: they would never have forgotten to qualify a few years ago. Their coach actually read out the stats about that dominance at his last press conference (there is no need to repeat them here: we know they’re good and I simply will not be the host for sycophantic fawning). They’ve been the best team in international football for the last six years, no question, and suddenly they can’t beat Finland and are two points behind France in their qualifying group. There’s been a change.

And this is brilliant news.

It’s brilliant news for a few reasons, ranging from the reasonable to the apparently not so. I’ll include both here but I won’t tell you which is which so as to keep you on your toes. This will be either fun or tedious, but again I won’t tell which so as to reinforce the on-the-toes mentality.
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This short video from Sid Lowe on FC Barcelona’s complex relationship with the growing Catalan independence movement is drawing kudos, and it’s very interesting to hear the tantalizingly fleeting opinions on the issue from major figures like former club president Joan Laporta and former player and coach Johan Cruyff.

Barca it seems has acted as a global magnifying glass on an issue of regional identity that other leaders of burgeoning, peaceful independence movements would love to have. Imagine for example if Quebec sovereigntists had managed to hoard the fiercely-loved (particularly by this author) Montreal Canadiens in the same way. Most involved in Catalonia’s drive to some sort of independent status within Spain however have striven to remain neutral on Barca’s specific symbolic role, which has led to some increasingly vague metaphors—”Barcelona provides the background music to independence, but not the words.”

But there are some interesting issues for Barca that go beyond the sticky questions of the very popular Spanish national team, stocked as it is with players from the Camp Nou. First, as the Barca/Real Madrid rivalry has gone global, so has the nascent and often not-very-well understood relationship between Catalonia and Francoist Spain. Barca fans from far flung locales wear Catalan flags over their replica kits, and incorrectly accuse Real Madrid supporters of backing a regime that ended in 1975. The last remaining statue from that era was removed in 2005.

This kind of thing could occur more often as the Catalan movement gather steam, particularly within the current economic situation in Spain. If the region does get its unlikely wish and manages to break away from Spain, Barca tourism will become an integral part of a regional economy. Along with that comes the inevitable question of national teams.

For now however, Barcelona will continue to navigate a tricky (a)political course…